Mike Kelley, Catholic Birdhouse, 1978, painted wood and composite shingles, 22 by 18 1/2 by 18 1/2 inches. Courtesy Mike Kelley Foundation for the Arts.

The enormous, posthumous retrospective of the Detroit-born, Los Angeles-based artist Mike Kelley, who committed suicide in 2012 at age 57, opens in its largest manifestation yet on Sunday at Long Island City's MoMA PS1 (through Feb. 2, 2014). It's the biggest show of the artist's work to date, and, according to PS1, the largest exhibition the museum has organized since it opened in 1976. Ranging from 1970s pieces to works dated 2012, "Mike Kelley" inhabits the century-old former school building from the top floor to below ground, where visitors can hear Kelley's own voice, via a sound work, in the basement stairwell.

Kelley is widely regarded as one of the most influential and prolific post-Pop contemporary artists. Mining American popular culture and incorporating cultural references and everyday objects like plush toys, Kelley explored themes of class relations, contemporary sexuality, repressed memory, systems of religion and politics, and, ultimately, transcendence.

Organized for Amsterdam's Stedelijk Museum by outgoing Stedelijk director Ann Goldstein based on a curatorial concept by German-born guest curator Eva Meyer-Hermann, the show was originally conceived with Kelley's personal involvement. It was transformed upon the artist's death into what Goldstein described at a press preview today as "a chronological, bodies-of-work-driven traveling retrospective." The show was designed to evolve as it traveled westward, incorporating additional pieces and changing curatorial focus along the way. Whereas the Amsterdam iteration displayed 200 works over nearly 20,000 square feet, the New York exhibition includes 270 and encompasses double that area. A smaller version traveled to Paris's Centre Georges Pompidou.

MoMA PS1 director Klaus Biesenbach emphasized today that the institution had given the whole building to the retrospective. "We've never done this before," he said. "Everything until February, for Mike." At PS1, it is co-curated by Connie Butler, chief curator of L.A.'s Hammer Museum, with Peter Eleey, MoMA PS1's curator and associate director of exhibitions and programs. After New York, the show will open at the Museum of Contemporary Art Los Angeles in March 2014.

Kelley's prodigious, darkly incisive, often funny output includes performance, works on paper, video, painting, sculpture, music, installation and photography. Much of his oeuvre has not been previously seen in New York. Among the works added at this venue are Kelley's poignant "Educational Complex" series (1995), the center of which is a huge white architectural tabletop model that clusters together every school Kelley ever attended (plus his childhood home). It contains several blank zones where Kelley claimed not to remember portions of the buildings. If gaps in memory suggest repressed trauma, these hazy zones imply that parts of Kelley's own training were rough going.

PS1 also devotes significant gallery space to Kelley's sculptural "Kandor" series (1999-2011). Kandor refers to the capital of Krypton, the home planet of DC Comics hero Superman, who believed he was the sole survivor of his doomed planet until he discovered that Kandor had been miniaturized by an archenemy. Colorful and delicate, yet eerily oozing sculptures (one of which is best viewed by climbing stairs to an accompanying platform), these works depict the fantasy city.

The artist's well-known, hugely ambitious body of Extracurricular Activity Projective Reconstructions (2000-2011), a serial work that Kelley envisioned as a monumental 365-installment collection, has been "filled out" for the PS1 show, according to Eleey. Day is Done, which was shown in New York at Gagosian Gallery in 2005, consists of twenty-five interconnected video installations in which found newspaper and high-school yearbook photos of extracurricular activities are elaborately restaged in what wall text says Kelley deemed reconstructions of repressed memories. (Parts of the series were shown at New York's Gagosian Gallery in 2005.) From cheerleading to church plays, constructed culture is on dizzying display in these compelling videos.

An extensive schedule of public programs has been organized, beginning with a re-staging at the opening this Sunday of Pansy Metal/Clovered Hoof, a 1989 dance work performed on a fashion show-style ramp to music from the album Orgasmatron by British heavy metal band Motörhead. Kelley's collaborator on this work, L.A.-based choreographer Anita Pace, is overseeing the re-staging. A one-day conference co-organized by Princeton University, "Mike Kelley Looking Forward," is scheduled for Dec. 15.