Lee Lozano

New York

at Karma


Lee Lozano’s name is inextricable from her caustic personality and the series of radical performative acts she carried out after a decade as a painter. Among the most notorious of those acts are the “boycott” of women she began in 1971 and—her pièce de résistance—Dropout Piece (1970–99), in which she went into gradual self-imposed exile, refusing to attend gallery openings, visit museums, and speak to anyone in the arts (except, perhaps, in private meetings held in her SoHo loft). Some argue that the final “gesture” of Dropout Piece was Lozano’s interment, upon her death in 1999 at age sixty-eight, in an unmarked grave outside of Dallas. 

The recent exhibition at Karma offered an important and illuminating look at Lozano’s rarely seen early work, from around 1962, the year before she began her famous “Tool” paintings, which launched her career and consist of large expressionistic depictions of hammers, wrenches, screws, and the like. The paintings here (all untitled) can be read as studies made on the path toward her mature work: fighter planes, vampiric mouths, phalluses, and body parts foreshadow the violent, brash utility that would soon explode in the “Tools.” 

The first painting one encountered was a friezelike piece that measures just over two inches high and fifteen inches long. The composition shows a yellow fighter plane nosediving over a cluster of forms evoking boulders and, zooming in from the right edge, a shadowy torpedo-esque shape; the background is a dirty olive green. Lozano created a handmade wooden frame for this painting, as she did for most of the works on view—a presentation strategy that suggests an early industriousness, an eagerness toward professionalism that Lozano would, by the end of the decade, abandon.  

In another painting, a pink breast floats at the left edge of the canvas, while, at center, an oblong green face with a long white flaccid proboscis is tucked under what seems to be a midcentury bench with elegantly curved legs. A black check mark appears at the top of the composition and runs onto the white-painted frame. This tiny act of defacement serves as a subtle harbinger of Lozano’s move toward more fully eschewing painterly decorum.

In spite of such glimpses of rebellion, the works are largely tradition-bound and convey, due in part to their diminutive scale, a sense of tentativeness. A miniature landscape (measuring 3¼ by 2¾ inches) features a fleshy slab punctured by a wooden stake and topped with three crosses; beside it hovers a red-lipped grinning mouth. Masters of anxiety like James Ensor and Philip Guston are summoned forth in the toothy grins, grotesque faces, skulls, and cartoonish, anthropomorphized objects that populate much of the works on view. 

In 1962 Leo Steinberg wrote that “it takes about seven years for a young artist to turn from enfant terrible to elder statesmen.” By 1969, Lozano had entered the citadel of Conceptual art and was already planning her exit from it; that year, she began General Strike Piece, in which she documented her final visits to galleries and museums, laying the foundation for her total withdrawal. The reasons behind Lozano’s break with the art world are many and speculative, but the agitated tone of the early ’60s paintings suggests what was to come. 

Lee Lozano

New York

at Hauser & Wirth


Hammered, bent, ripped, smashed: slang terms for drunk can be associated with almost all the objects Lee Lozano depicted in a series of paintings and drawings from 1963–64 recently on view at Hauser & Wirth. Sexual innuendo, though, is what they’re generally said to deliver, and indeed they also do that, especially if you add “screwed” and “shafted” to the list of mangled “tools.” Either way, the vocabulary suggests an inclination to provoke, as does the work’s execution, which is ferocious.

The untitled diptych that introduced this show features an unidentifiable hand tool, enormously enlarged—the painting is 9 feet high and 11 wide—and jammed up against the canvas’s surface. Its contours are blearily softened, which only enhances its menace. A slightly smaller painting features a hammer’s handle wrapped tenderly around the tool’s own head, the glowing, fleshy surfaces executed with de Kooningesqe bravura. By contrast, the thunderous wallop with which the three heads of another hammer strike down has all the delicacy of a mastodon. In most of these paintings, Lozano’s palette is restricted to shades of gray warmed with touches of brown and yellow. But in a few she uses a fiery carmine to bump up the savagery, as in a massive image of a prostrate hammer whose shaft glows molten red.

If the paintings suggest Lozano developed as an artist under the influence of Abstract Expressionism, the drawings more obviously place her among Pop artists of her own generation. Vigorously drawn in graphite and/ or conté crayon, her screwdrivers, razor blades and wrenches have an animate presence that in several examples evokes drawings by Claes Oldenburg, who like Lozano showed at Richard Bellamy’s Green Gallery in the early 1960s. But Oldenburg’s famous bent-screw image came in 1969, half a dozen years after Lozano’s tool drawings, just as her focus on imagery that could be associated with active verbs—which she herself noted with glee—anticipated Richard Serra’s verb list of 1967–68. Skewering the big guys’ macho posturing with her tool images, she could also clearly beat them at their own games.

Just as clearly, she took little pleasure in it. The several varieties of intoxication and anger that Lozano expressed so strongly in her work also played a darker role in her life. Moving at great speed through various styles and theoretical positions, including Minimalism and Conceptualism, she arrived by 1969 at a piece that required her to drop acid for 30 days straight, and another, unreal- ized, that would have involved a series of paintings rendered three times each, when she was stoned, drunk and sober. By 1971, in keeping with her infamous Dropout Piece, she had cut off all rela- tions with other women. The following year, she departed from the art world altogether. She died of cancer in 1999.

Dropping out has had paradoxical effects on some artists’ careers—Agnes Martin, Lee Bontecou, Jay DeFeo and of course Duchamp are among those whose extended absences from the art world later helped consolidate their reputations. Lozano’s star has been rising for several years. In this show it blazed.

Photo: Lee Lozano: No title, 1963, oil on canvas, 65 by 80 inches; at Hauser & Wirth.